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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

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n. 图形,数字,形状; 人物,外形,体型
adj. 暴露的,无掩蔽的,暴露于风雨中的 v. 暴露,
从10年和20年的时间跨度来看,地域和资产类别的多元化已经证明对投资回报和风险管理有益。不幸的是,在12个月内,不一定能看到此种战略的好处。在如今这个140字微博消息和2分钟短视频盛行的时代,投资者不能以长期的表现来判断其投资组合的成败,又有何奇怪?

墓地主人的身份依然是个迷。这座墓地曾经被盗过,而且墓地中没有任何的文字记录来表明这些死者的名字以及他们的职位。
When it was set up in 2002, Teach First’s aim was to encourage more graduates to try teach-ing. Amid worries that the best brains in the country were being lured into the City of London, accountancy and law, the idea was to tap some of their brain power for state schools, in an attempt to tackle educational inequality.
There's often an option to post your résumé anonymously, so do that, Foss says. "Or forgo that option and stick with LinkedIn," she adds. "You're way more likely to be found by recruiters and hiring managers there anyway."

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

一房多卖骗得770余万元房款 父子双双坐牢

STEP 8: PRACTICE the method of loci or roman room, or at least pretend to
至于英格兰嘛?或许最好的事情应该便是在此次比赛中无人会期待有任何事情的发生,而对于英格兰而言,不从小组赛中淘汰掉便是一个褒奖了吧。
2017年,全球黄金的产量从上一年的3263吨上升至3268.7吨。这是自2008年以来的最小涨幅。2008年金融危机期间,黄金开采量下降了逾2%。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

The average value of the household appliance sector soared 74 percent, showing the biggest increase among top 10 sectors. E-commerce and retail followed, with their value up 69 percent. The medical health care sector climbed up 32 percent. The financial service sector increased 18 percent and the alcohol sector rose 17 percent. Real estate gained 15 percent and food and drinks were up 11 percent.
支持:奥德曼塑造的战时领袖丘吉尔收获一致好评,而这对他似乎是手到擒来的。
小牛队老板马克-库班曾下过比这更大的赌注,但是,他尝试换来诺埃尔作为空中接力/护框型球员——像泰森-钱德勒那样,舍弃的东西并不多(贾斯廷-安德森和一次伪第一轮选秀权)。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 与此同时,法国拉罗谢尔高等商学院(La Rochelle Business School)的排名却下滑12个位置,排在第60位,去年该学校是排名上升最快的学校之一。
  • 人民日报:地方隐性债务风险得到有效遏制
  • poised
  • 房价趋降业主由售转租 11月二居室租金降10%
  • 新华社:部分地区出现机构为争夺房源哄抬租金、高价收房的现象
  • The Warriors played pre-season games in China in 2013 against the Los Angeles Lakers, but it will be the first time the Timberwolves visit China.
    In New York it is illegal for anyone to rent out a room in an apartment in a multifamily building for less than 30 days if a tenant is not present. Yet almost weekly, someone writes to Ask Real Estate seeking advice on how to skirt the rules. What if I swap apartments? What if nothing is in writing?

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 渤海钢铁陷千亿债务危机 3.5亿起拍总部办公房产抵债, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

北京:面向人才专配公租房共有产权房

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

十六大关键词解读LED照明行业

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 8. You left your résumé in the freaking printer!
    自2005年首次发布这一排行榜以来的一项最重大计算方法变化是,FT现在收集校友毕业后首份工作的信息。这些数据与他们当前的工作(毕业三年后)的信息一起使用。这使得FT可以计算出他们自毕业以来的工资增长(一个新的排名指标)以及他们的职业发展。
  • An Obama tweet, published in August after racial violence rocked Charlottesville, Virginia was the second most-shared this year, according to Twitter, with more than 1.7 million retweets.
    ['k?mpleks]
    Frankly, this sort of behaviour means you are very much still a girl and definitely not yet a woman.
    有趣的是,一项调查发现,31.8%的受访者认为北京是中国最拥堵的城市,而8.8%的人则认为郑州是中国最拥堵的城市。
    据《外交政策》网站报道,在通往世界杯奖杯的漫漫征程中,比利时和乌拉圭是夺冠热门球队希望避开的两座冰山。在今年的世界杯赛场上,尽管比利时和乌拉圭都是不起眼的小角色,但它们有能力让比盲目自信的对手喝上一壶。虽然它们是历史上的小国,地缘政治上的出气筒,但很明显,他们在足球场上仍然极具竞争力。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 全联房地产商会赵正挺:地产业呈现五化发展趋势
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 广东:镇村厂房物业 一律镇级平台交易

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

目前,大部分围绕比特币的活动都是货币性的,因此,批评者指向其波动性也合乎情理。blockchain.info网站上的市场价格走势图显示,尽管以美元衡量的比特币价值在过去一年缩水了67%,其价值在过去两年则飙升了1879%。因此,投资比特币是好是坏,取决于你的视角。
The Female Warlord Who Had C.I.A. Connections and Opium Routes
胡润表示,王健林今年已将集团旗下的地产公司从港交所退市,希望该公司能在上海或深圳交易所实现更高的估值。
这其中包括麦肯锡(McKinsey)。去年10月,这家咨询机构的500多名高级合伙人汇聚伦敦格罗夫纳豪斯酒店(Grosvenor House Hotel),启动了神神秘秘的领导层选举程序。下一阶段涉及该公司550名高级合伙人于1月对鲍达民(Dominic Barton)继任者的候选名单进行投票,之后在2月份对两名人气最高的候选人进行第二轮投票。鲍达民自2009年起执掌麦肯锡。
This is the second time that both enterprises and institutions have adjusted basic pension, since the first simultaneous adjustment in 2016.
8月首播的《秦时丽人明月心》全剧共48集,围绕着秦朝(公元前221-206年)时的争斗和爱情故事展开,剧情均为虚构。
根据一项最新调查显示,2013年度最差劲密码非“123456”莫属了。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Rounding out the top-performing sectors of 2014 was an unlikely pair: tech (+16%) and consumer staples (+13.2%)—the most aggressive and most defensive areas of the market, running side-by-side toward the finish line, with confounded spectators struggling to concoct a narrative for this. Why would the least cyclical sectors—healthcare, staples and utilities—lead the markets in a year in which unemployment plummeted and GDP growth gained momentum? Much to the chagrin of the pundit class, sometimes there are no satisfying answers. To quote Kurt Vonnegut:
  • 依托区块链为代表的新技术 长三角城市边界逐渐消失
  • China and its southern neighbour failed to come to an agreement on cross-border trade last month during Vietnamese president Truong Tan Sang's state visit to China, where he met with his counterpart Xi Jiping.
    Star risers
  • 小户型低首付 这个小区二手房换手率高有奥秘
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Maybe 'Melo's mini-fro is the missing key to an NBA Championship for the New York Knicks. Oh no, wait, the missing link is Jeremy Lin—but still, 'Melo's mini-fro wouldn't hurt the Knicks' title hopes.
    How could we not include the ancient Chinese theory of interior aesthetics? Where your desk is situated is the most important aspect to freeing the energy in your space. Place your desk so that you face the door— the ultimate power position. Avoid placing your desk against a wall with your back facing the door, as it will interfere with the balance of your chi.
  • They are typically designed for students with an average age of 22.
    CPI increase kept around 3 percent.
  • 欧洲专利局上周二发布的数据显示,2016年,中国企业向欧洲专利局共递交7150项专利申请,同比增长24.8%。
    6. Data scientist
  • ['elim?nt]
    tox毒,ic-有毒的
    该读数略低于经济学家的预期,不过总体上并不令人吃惊。上个月当中国央行(PBoC)出人意料地采取降息措施时,部分分析师就曾表示,此举可能是一种预防性措施,新出来的经济数据很可能较为疲弱。如今,事实正如他们的预期。
  • “如果你读了这本书,你就会发现,在这个故事里有个小插曲,我想那在某种程度上报复了邦德有些傲慢的态度。”
    Stand: Apple CEO Tim Cook fought for workplace protection for the LGBT community
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The “卖二买一”换房 买卖衔接考水平 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

5月全国楼市成交创新高 一线城市涨幅明显

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

央行公布去年金融数据报告:超四成贷款用于买房

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

山东省建筑材料将实行质量追溯制度

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

北京一房东卖房不迁出户口 两次转手引发连环诉讼

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 出租房
  • Honestly if you want to laugh your way through a Netflix original movie, please just watch The Incredible Jessica James because it's a delightful romantic comedy that blows everything else out of the water.
  • 北京二手房成交价降至2016年水平 降温将持续

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Farewell to Don and his perfect suits, to Peggy and her plaids, to Joan and her jewel tones and sheaths.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 9. 安布罗斯·阿钦摩西尔(Ambrose Akinmusire),《想像中的救世主更容易描绘》(the imagined savior is far easier to paint),Blue Note。小号手安布罗斯·阿钦摩西尔为自己在Blue Note公司发行的第二张专辑注入了类型不固定,富于探索精神的今日之声,有许多歌手和一支弦乐四重奏组合参与。和这张专辑刚发行的时候相比,如今的他有了更多评论社会的迫切与讥讽时局的精神。
    elite
    不会。这笔被誉为史上最大规模的首次公开发行(IPO),是沙特实际领导人穆罕默德本萨勒曼(Mohammed bin Salman)宏大经济重组计划的基石,因此沙特阿美IPO肯定会成行。该公司的股票将在沙特本国的证交所上市。不过,此次IPO计划在国外的部分不太可能是一次公开发行。唐纳德特朗普正在为纽约游说,伦敦也在全力以赴争取。香港和东京也在沙特的考虑之中。但沙特会转而选择非公开售股,或者在晚于预期的时间在国外上市。
  • 星期三,枪手在伊拉克首都绑架了18名土耳其工人。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Considering Stryker's founder invented the turning frame -- a device that allows patients to be repositioned in bed while keeping their bodies immobile -- it only makes sense that this medical equipment manufacturer lends employees and their families medical beds, free of charge.
  • 英国退欧或将长期影响欧盟木质家具市场
  • Remedy: Make a budget. If you don’t know how much money you need to live the lifestyle you feel comfortable with, you can’t accurately project whether switching jobs for a $10K pay bump is actually a good deal. Making a pros and cons list when comparing your current job with a new opportunity is also helpful. If the only advantage a job offers is a bigger pay check, you can weigh that against longer hours, a more onerous commute and increased reporting responsibilities. Keep in mind that research shows that increases in happiness based on earnings peak at about $75K. Incomes above this level don’t increase your feeling of well-being on a day-to-day basis. So, if you think a jump up to $85 or $90K will make you feel less morose when your alarm goes off, you might want to look at addressing some of the non-monetary factors in your life that are contributing to your dissatisfaction.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 雷士照明内乱再起:“吴氏体系”垮台 王冬雷接任CEO
  • Household substance abuse
  • 分析称房价跌15%开发商能保本 有城市或跌50%
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

局长买房一次性付500万 背后牵出千万元腐败“窝案”

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 山东青岛:精简审批手续 改造老旧社区
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 石材市场悄然生变 磨具产品如何立足
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

当你需要帮助时,你应该联系你的人脉资源——这正是他们存在的原因。无论你需要他人为你打气,还是想要寻求积累技术经验的建议,你的导师、同事和经理都能为你提供帮助。今天,你可能不知道如何开展某项工作,但你或许足够聪明,能够找到能帮你掌握这种技能的人。一旦你做到这一点,千万不要放松,因为前方总会有其他挑战在等待着你。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

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Each film Wes Anderson makes seems to exist in its very own universe. And “The Grand Budapest Hotel,” set mainly in the 1930s, uses distinct elements and props to help define its world.
7The United States
对于美联储(Federal Reserve)预计本周宣布的加息已经产生了效应,还是会进一步加大负债企业和经济体所受的压力,投资者意见分歧。
不要马上接受工作录用
信中写道:“英国时装协会不应该认可这种生产如此残酷,甚至在英国是非法的材料。
专家警告说,在普通词汇中添加数字或符号根本没用。斯莱恩说:“黑客们都知道你的小伎俩,对容易破解的密码稍作调整不会更安全。”
远离熙熙攘攘的繁华都市,密歇根上半岛主打自然风景与美景,种种景观令人叹为观止。
The US and European steel industries have accused China’s heavily subsidised sector of flooding the global market with steel, “dumping” it by selling below production costs and driving down international prices. The collapse in steel prices in recent years has caused the closure of mills across the world from Australia to the UK and parts of the US industrial heartland.
Millward Brown的BrandZ估值主管Elspeth Cheung表示:“排行榜10强过去由消费品主宰。今年是科技。”

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

东方雨虹携手阿里巴巴或宣告建材行业大数据营销时代的到来

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 不会。傻子才会去预测足球比赛的结果。最好是作事后诸葛亮。目前已经举办过20届世界杯。其中,巴西(5次捧杯)和德国(4次捧杯)是决赛常客。主场优势有所帮助,东道国赢得了6次奖杯。但是明年的世界杯将在俄罗斯举行,而这位东道主在参赛队伍中排名垫底。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Meanwhile, former Fifth Harmony star Camila Cabello proved her solo career is getting off to a flying start as she picked up the Best Pop award for her debut single, Havana.Her win meant that Taylor Swift was dealt another award snub, though it was just one of many for the singer, who recently made her return to the spotlight following her one-year hiatus.
  • 中消协:华帝应切实履行退款承诺
  • 继Facebook前员工肖恩帕克(Sean Parker)和查马斯帕里哈皮蒂亚(Chamath Palihapitiya)——二人谴责了社交媒体的成瘾性——之后,新的一年将有更多的科技行业工作者发声。
  • “禁墅令”实施十余年 各种擦边球项目层出不穷
  • 4.菲亚特 品牌喜爱度:-7%/排名:85

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 简政放权房地产样本:一个项目要盖400多个章
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 5. Confirmation of the discovery of a nearby habitable planet
  • Truck wars: Awards aside, Ford’s aluminum pickup is hard to build and slow to sell, leaving an opening for Ram’s fast-rising 1500 while Nissan tries to forget the failure of its first full-size truck when it launches the second-generation Titan with the biggest of big rig styling. The industry’s biggest secret is revealed by veteran executive John Krafcik in Automotive News: In the

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

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